Bill Lescher

During the American Revolutionary War, a lot was happening on the seas. There was much to see, from the Battle of Saratoga to the Punitive Expeditions of the Treaty of Paris. Some of these things will be discussed in the next article. Naval warfare has been an important part of the war on and in the seas for as long as people have been around. The U.S. Navy program made it possible to save ships built for war. The public can use these ships as a way to learn.

The history of these ships is also interesting. In addition to the history of the navy, many of these ships show how the U.S. Navy has changed over time. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were a lot more naval warships that were still around. Most of these ships had something to do with the Second World War.

The U.S. government sent two punishment groups to Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. These expeditions aimed to fight Francisco "Pancho" Villa and his group, the Mexican Revolutionary Army, which worked with him.

The Punitive Expedition was the first, and President Woodrow Wilson was in charge. It was meant to take over the port of Veracruz and get rid of the government of General Victoriano Huerta. In the end, Villa was never caught by the Punitive Expedition. But it gave them good training for World War I, which was coming soon.

The United States sent troops into Mexico in 1916 as part of the second Punitive Expedition. This was called the Pancho Villa Expedition. The expedition aimed to catch Villa and his rebel forces, but they were able to escape. Many troops, like cavalry and motorized supply vehicles, were part of the Punitive Expedition. There were also observation planes on the excursion. Beginning on March 16, 1916, the expedition made its way into Mexico. It took a month to finish the job.

In 1940, when the Germans invaded France, Britain's armed forces did more than watch. The French won points when they showed how strong their navy was. While Britain was trying to stop Germany from controlling the sea routes to France, French naval ships sped out of ports around the Mediterranean and into the Gulf of Omar to help their allies.

The goal of Operation Catapult was to stop the Germans from taking over French battleships in the Mediterranean. To do this, the British sent a group of armed sailors to different ports to take over French ships. The biggest risk was that swarms of German mercenaries would take over the armed forces. This turned out to be a problem.

Even though Operation Catapult did what it was meant to do, it didn't go down without a fight. French fishermen sank several ships that belonged to the navy. Few big ships were lucky enough to make it through the attack. The United States and Britain went to war several times during the American Revolution. But after the British beat the American colonists at Yorktown, the two countries started talking about making peace. Britain gave the United States several pieces of land during the peace talks. It also gave Loyalists money for staying with the British.

In April 1782, the British and Americans started talking about how to work together. In July of 1782, the British sent a group of people to Paris to talk with the Americans about peace. They also chose Thomas Jefferson to do the negotiating for them. There were many things that the British and American delegates didn't agree on. They agreed to work things out but couldn't decide on the final terms. This led to a time when the two countries fought with each other.

In the 1970s, the U.S. Navy started a huge scrapping project to get rid of and save the reserve fleet. During the 1990s, the economy of the United States started to grow. It also started to go farther out into international waters. During the 200th anniversary of the United States, the third wave of efforts to save naval ships took place. During this time, six important warships were kept in good shape. These ships were important in World War II, but they were also important in the first century of the United States.

When Richard Oswald, the British representative, got to Paris, the peace talks began. The talks went on until the end of 1782. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay were on the American team. Henry Laurens wasn't at the early peace talks, though, because he was in jail at the Tower of London.

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